How Americans view state sexual and gender identity policy proposals

In recent years, many countries have considered or their year Transgender policies. Regarding some of these measures, there is some agreement among Americans, but views on other policies are more divided, according to a Recent Pew Research Center survey.

Overall, only 8% of Americans say they are Follow the news about bills proposed by several states recently Related to transgender people either significantly or very closely, according to the May 16-22 survey of 10,188 US adults. About two-thirds (68%) said they follow news about these bills little or not at all closely.

Here’s a closer look at how the public views some of the state’s policy proposals regarding transgender people. In general, views on all surveyed policies Varies by age, party, race and ethnicity.

In May Pew Research Center survey of gender identity issues, researchers asked respondents how they feel about some of the current laws and policies that are in place or considered across the United States in relation to transgender issues. We conducted this study to better understand Americans’ views of gender identity and transgender or non-binary people.

This analysis is based on a survey of 10,188 US adults. The data was collected as part of a larger survey conducted May 16-22, 2022. Each person who participated is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel recruited through national random sampling of units residential. addresses. In this way, almost all adults in the United States have the opportunity to choose. The survey was weighted to be representative of the adult population of the United States by gender, race, ethnicity, party affiliation, education, and other categories. Read more about ATP . methodology. Read more about Questions used in this analysisalong with responses, and methodology.

To understand the nature of laws and policies related to transgender issues, we also examined news reports and external data, such as from movement advancement projectand, when possible, compare that information with research on laws relating to these topics. Links to data sources can be found throughout the publication. We included states in the relevant totals if they had gender identity and transgender laws on the books, even if the law is currently on hold due to judicial challenges. (For example, a federal judge blocked Idaho from enforcing its law restricting transgender students from participating in sports in August 2020; Still blocked amid ongoing legal challenges.)

At least 21 states have passed some type of transgender restrictions, such as limiting the ability of transgender student athletes to play on sports teams that match their gender identity; made it illegal for health care professionals to provide a person under the age of 18 with medical care for gender transmission; Excluding Medicare coverage for gender transitions from state Medicaid; Or make it illegal to teach education departments about gender identity in primary schools. At least seven states — Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas — have passed two or more of these restrictions.

Anti-discrimination laws

Overall, 64% of Americans prefer policies that protect transgender people from discrimination in jobs, housing, and public places such as restaurants and stores, including 37% who strongly favor them. A much smaller percentage (10%) opposes or strongly opposes these policies, while 25% neither supports nor opposes them.

Bar chart showing most Americans say they favor laws that protect transgender people from discrimination in jobs, housing, and public spaces

Supreme court Judgment in June 2020 In Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia, “An employer who fires an individual simply for being gay or transgender is in violation of Title VII” of the Civil Rights Act of 1964—making such employment discrimination illegal.

In February 2021, the US House of Representatives passed Equality LawWhich Will expand the Civil Rights Act expressly “to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation” in housing, employment, public accommodations, and other areas. The bill has been waiting for action in the Senate since March.

Map showing that at least 21 states and the metropolitan area prohibit discrimination against transgender people in housing, jobs, and public spaces

Statewide, at least 21 states, plus the District of Columbia, prohibit discrimination in LivingAnd the Careers And the public spaces On the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation. Utah prohibits housing and employment discrimination, but not in public places. Wisconsin prohibits discrimination in all three categories, but only on the basis of sexual orientation, not gender identity.

Transgender athletes

When asked about views of possible limitations on transgender people, there is only one Supported by the majority of Americans: 58% said they favor or strongly support policies that require transgender athletes to compete on teams that match the gender assigned to them at birth, rather than the gender they identify with now. About four in ten (41%) strongly favor these policies. Only 17% oppose or strongly oppose them, while about a quarter of American adults (24%) neither support nor oppose these policies.

Map showing at least 18 states restricting transgender student athletes from competing on teams that match their gender identity

At least 18 states restrict the ability of transgender student athletes to play on sports teams that match their gender identity. March 2020, Idaho It was the first country to pass a law Limiting student-athlete participation in sports, and Louisiana becomes the eighteenth state To do so in June.

public baths

Americans’ views of other restrictions on transgender people are more divided.

Regarding potential policies requiring transgender individuals to use public restrooms that match the gender they were assigned at birth, not their gender identity, opinions of Americans are mixed. About four in ten (41%) prefer these policies to some extent. About three in ten (31%) would oppose these policies at least to some extent, and 28% neither support nor oppose them.

No countries currently have procedures that explicitly prohibit adults from using public restrooms that match their gender identity. A prominent North Carolina law of 2016 requires people to use a public restroom that matches their sex specified at birth Canceled in 2017.

At least three states restrict public school students’ ability to use the bathroom that matches their gender identity: AlabamaAnd the Oklahoma And the Tennessee.

More coverage of LGBTQ issues

Gender identity in the curriculum

Americans are closely divided when it comes to potential laws and policies that would make it illegal for public school districts to teach about gender identity in elementary schools: 41% say they favor or strongly support it and 38% would oppose or strongly oppose it. About two in ten (21%) neither support nor oppose it.

Florida Law It came into effect in July A classroom discussion says “about sexual orientation or gender identity may not occur in kindergarten through third grade or in a manner that is inappropriate for age or developmentally appropriate for students by state standards.” a Similar Alabama law It was signed into law in April. Legislators in at least 20 states I submitted similar invoices this year.

In a May survey, the center asked parents of K-12 students Whether any of their children have ever learned about transgender people Or those who don’t identify as a boy or girl from a teacher or other adult at their school.

About 37% of parents who have children in middle or high school say their children learned about transgender people or those who don’t identify as a boy or girl from a teacher or other adult at their school; A much smaller percentage of parents of primary school students (16%) say the same. Overall, 29% of parents who had children in elementary, middle, and high school said that at least one of their children from K-12 had learned about it in school.

Medical coverage, gender transition care

More Americans say they would or strongly oppose (44%) than those who said they favor or strongly support (27%) requiring health insurance companies to cover Medicare for gender transitions, and 28% neither support nor oppose it.

The landscape of insurance coverage for gender transitions varies. Overall, at least 24 states, plus the District of Columbia as well Private health insurance companies require Medicare coverage For gender transitions, prevent them from creating blanket policy exceptions for gender transition and related services, or simply prohibit companies from withholding insurance plans or charging different premiums because of someone’s gender identity. At least 25 countries and DC Include Transgender Medicaid in their Medicaid programs. At least eight states expressly exclude transition-related Medicare coverage from their Medicaid programs; In August, a court ruling Overturned the exclusion of West Virginia.

Map showing state policies differ regarding Medicare coverage for gender transitions

About 46% of Americans say they favor or strongly support making it illegal for healthcare professionals To provide a person under the age of 18 with transgender medical care. About three in ten (31%) said they would oppose or strongly oppose this policy, while 22% do not support or oppose it.

In May, a federal judge Part of Alabama law blocked in April, which would have made providing hormones and puberty-preventing drugs to transgender minors a felony. Arkansas issued a ban in 2021 on doctors providing transition-related care to transgender youth, but a judge Banning the entry into force of this law. Arizona Passed a law in March who – which Doctors are prohibited From “Irreversible surgery to change the sex of minors.” It comes into effect in 2023.

Several countries, including Idaho And the New Hampshire, considered bills classifying helping minors get medical care for transgender people as child abuse, but these attempts were unsuccessful. It was Texas Governor Greg Abbott’s directive that defined such care as abuse Banned twice in court. Americans are divided on whether they would support or oppose laws and policies that require investigations with parents about child abuse if they helped someone under 18 obtain medical care for gender transition: 37% say they prefer these laws at least to some degree . At least 36% oppose the idea to some extent while 27% neither support nor oppose it.

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